In 1982 Stein and coworkers identified a new molecule, CD30 (Ki-1), which is expressed by Reed-Sternberg cells of classical Hodgkin’s disease. CD30 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) superfamily, which comprises more than 10 different members. CD30 has an extracytoplasmic domain, transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic domain. The majority of mAbs against human CD30 recognize epitopes within the extracytoplasmic domain. The protein is heavily glycosylated within the Golgi apparatus (120 kDa). A variant form (CD30v) having only the cytoplasmic domain is expressed in alveolar macrophages. CD30 has a ligand molecule (CD30L also designated as CD153), which is present on neutrophils, activated T-cells, macrophages and monocytes.
Lymphoid cells carrying viral EBV, HIV, and HTLV-1 genomes express high levels of CD30. It is not clear whether this is due to viral transactivation of CD30 or it correlates with cell activation and proliferation.
CD30 is found in activated B lymphocytes (Fig. 1A), plasma cells (Fig. 1B), T lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, large lymphoid cells in lymph node, tonsil, thymus, deciduas and endometrial cells with decidual change.
Among malignant lymphoma CD30 is expressed in classical Hodgkin’s disease (cHD) (Fig. 2A), anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), anaplastic variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (av-DLBCL), and CD30 positive cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorder. Some cases of mycosis fungoides can have significant CD30 expression. Primary effusion lymphoma and Castleman’s disease may also be positive (association with HHV8).
Expression of CD30 has also been demonstrated in embryonal carcinoma (Fig. 2B) and some seminomas (mixed germ cell tumour).
Classification of malignant lymphoma and other lymphocytic lesions, see Neoplasms. Classification of carcinomas and germ cell tumours, viz. identification of embryonal carcinoma (together with OCT3/4).
There are currently six different antibodies designated as anti-CD30 Abs. Ki-1 is used on frozen tissue, while Ber-H2 on paraffin-embedded tissue.
Heat-induced antigen retrieval (HIER) significantly improves detection of CD30 in paraffin-embedded tissues. Fixation is important. It is much easier to detect CD30 in formalin-fixed tissues than in B5-fixed tissues (since this is just the opposite for CD15, it is important to try to sample lymph node tissue for fixation in both fixatives for optimal work up of Hodgkin’s disease).
Control tissue: Tonsil or lymph node containing scattered CD30+ activated lymphocytes. Also follicular lymphoma with occasional weakly positive cells or a selected case of Hodgkin’s lymphoma with known weak expression of CD30 is appropriate.
Controls for B5-fixed tissue should also be fixed in B5. Strongly positive tumours (such as anaplastic large cell lymphoma) are not recommended as positive controls.
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Pileri SA, Ascani S, Leoncini L, Sabattini E, Zinzani
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